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  • The Sleep Medicine Group of Sleep Centres: About Us - Sleep Disorders
    the middle of important activities including driving and while playing sports This can be quite dangerous for themselves and others In addition they can fall asleep during conversations and at work harming their personal and professional relationships Those with Narcolepsy often experience a temporary paralysis which can be physically harmful if they fall down and also very frightening when it occurs Research to date reveals that Narcolepsy appears to affect the part of the central nervous system that controls sleep and wakefulness and that it is not a psychological disorder While there is no cure yet recent advances in medicine technology and pharmacology allow those with Narcolepsy to lead nearly normal lives The finding that the Brain Protein called Orexin or Hypocretin is deficient in patients with Narcolepsy by leading researchers including our own is bringing hope of a cure The doctors at the Sleep Medicine group of sleep centres are actively pursuing this research Diagnosing Narcolepsy needs to be done in a clinic that is familiar with sleep medicine The patient s complete medical history is considered and the patient is given a thorough physical examination Most often patients are also given two tests a polysomnogram and a multiple sleep latency test MSLT to confirm a suspected diagnosis and also to determine the extent of the Narcolepsy Excessive Daytime Sleepiness EDS is an essential part of the diagnosis of Narcolepsy but may have a variety of other causes including Obstructive Sleep Apnoea OSA Restless Legs Syndrome RLS Circadian Rhythm Disorder and the syndrome of Primary Hypersomnolence The symptom of EDS is important because it is associated with feeling drowsy and tired having an overwhelming need to sleep during the day being unable to stay awake in the daytime even after getting a good night s sleep and falling asleep

    Original URL path: http://www.sleepclinic.co.za/sleep_disorders/sleep_disorders_narcolepsy.htm (2015-12-05)
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  • The Sleep Medicine Group of Sleep Centres: About Us - Sleep Disorders
    not all snorers have OSA Diagnosing OSA needs to be done in a sleep centre and requires at least one Nocturnal Polysomnogram PSG which measures various physiological functions during the stages of sleep A trained sleep technician monitors the patient continuously during the test Then the results are evaluated by a sleep disorder specialist a diagnosis is made and a treatment plan is proposed The most effective means of treating OSA is by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure CPAP In this highly effective therapy a mask is worn over the nose during sleep Nasal CPAP provides a pressure splint to the upper airway allowing the person to sleep and breathe normally The airflow required must be determined through testing during sleep which is done during an overnight PSG OSA left untreated is associated with a much poorer long term outcome and increases the risk of cardiovascular pulmonary and other diseases Disruption of sleep caused by frequent interruption of breathing leading to excessive daytime sleepiness irritability memory lapses inattention personality changes poor work performance increased likelihood of driving and industrial accidents Dangerously low levels of oxygen can lead to potential heart problems and other health disorders including depression mood changes memory loss

    Original URL path: http://www.sleepclinic.co.za/sleep_disorders/sleep_disorders_osa.htm (2015-12-05)
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  • The Sleep Medicine Group of Sleep Centres: About Us - Sleep Disorders
    began in defining the clinical features of RLS Specifically an International RLS Study Group the IRLSSG has organized and has started to define the characteristic symptoms of RLS Criteria for the diagnosis of RLS as described by the IRLSSG include four features An urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs Sometimes the urge to move is present without the uncomfortable sensations and sometimes the arms or other body parts are involved in addition to the legs The urge to move or unpleasant sensations begin or worsen during periods of rest or inactivity such as lying or sitting The urge to move or unpleasant sensations are partially or totally relieved by movements such as walking or stretching at least as long as the activity continues The urge to move or unpleasant sensations are worse in the evening or night than during the day or only occur in the evening or night When symptoms are very severe the worsening at night may not be noticeable but must have been previously present Epidemiologic studies have indicated that 5 to 15 of the adult population may experience RLS symptoms RLS is easily diagnosed by

    Original URL path: http://www.sleepclinic.co.za/sleep_disorders/sleep_disorders_restless_legs.htm (2015-12-05)
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  • The Sleep Medicine Group of Sleep Centres: About Us - Sleep Disorders
    Rapid Eye Movement or REM sleep Normally during this phase of sleep we dream and our muscles are usually without any tone However in RBD there is no loss of this muscle tone and patients usually are able to move their bodies and thereby act on their dreams REM sleep behavior disorder RBD is characterized by episodes of vigorous speech or shouting and violent movement or behaviour It may cause

    Original URL path: http://www.sleepclinic.co.za/sleep_disorders/sleep_disorders_rem.htm (2015-12-05)
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  • The Sleep Medicine Group of Sleep Centres: About Us - Sleep Disorders
    occurrence of a Sleep Terror with marked autonomic hyperactivity such as increased heart rate and respiratory rate When occurring in a state of terror the movements may be much more rapid with episodes of rushing into walls through windows and out into street There is reduced responsiveness but the subject may shout or scream The flight response may include complex behavior such as starting a car and driving The complex

    Original URL path: http://www.sleepclinic.co.za/sleep_disorders/sleep_disorders_sleep_walking.htm (2015-12-05)
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  • The Sleep Medicine Group of Sleep Centres: About Us - Sleep Disorders
    are sleep disorders do you have a sleep problem perform an online sleep assessment sleep faq sleep tips Circadian Rhythm Disorders The human body functions according to a circadian rhythm thought to be controlled by a biological clock located in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus There are several distinct disorders of our circadian rhythm and these are listed below 1 Jet Lag 2 Shift Work related circadian

    Original URL path: http://www.sleepclinic.co.za/sleep_disorders/sleep_disorders_circadian.htm (2015-12-05)
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  • The Sleep Medicine Group of Sleep Centres: About Us - Sleep Disorders
    they are misunderstood This disorder has been more frequently reported in adults but has been found in children More careful examination usually discloses hindbrain lesions of REM sleep control mechanisms The most effective treatment is by drugs which suppress REM sleep and psychotherapy such as Hypnosis or Acupuncture Sleepwalking When children are forcibly roused out of stage 2 sleep a lighter form of non REM sleep thinking is often reported which contrasts with the gross visual imagery unrealism and more vivid actions of dreaming usually found but not wholly in REM sleep Such thinking is less prevalent in SWS Sometimes more disturbing mental events can occur during SWS with the most notable being sleepwalking somnambulism and night terrors pavor nocturnes with the latter being quite distinct from the nightmares of dreaming sleep These SWS phenomena can be found together They mainly occur in childhood and tend have some hereditary basis Sleepwalking peaks in adolescence but declines rapidly by the late teens Episodes are often triggered by anxiety in susceptible children the worry can be trivial the loss of a favourite toy or just a frustrating day Only in serious cases when sleepwalking occurs most nights might there be severe distress and underlying emotional conflict requiring intervention Children are particularly difficult to arouse from SWS and even very loud sounds of 123 dB can have no effect It is difficult to wake up a sleepwalking child and is unwise to do so as distress or a wild and emotional outburst may set in It is best to guide or carry them back to bed As many sleepwalking episodes occur within the first two hours of sleep when SWS is most prolific parents are usually still up The mind of a sleepwalker is unresponsive to what is going on around and seems steeped in thought The sleepwalker behaves like an automaton with a limited repertoire of behaviour but does not walk about with the hands out in front as is commonly portrayed There is no memory of the nocturnal activities the next day Episodes can last up to 30 minutes but usually average 5 15 minutes Sleep EEG recordings of sleep walkers show that they usually remain in SWS whilst sleepwalking with few signs of arousal Typically in a sleepwalking episode the child will sit up quietly get out of bed and move about in a confused and clumsy manner Although behaviour becomes more coordinated the sleepwalker tends to remain in the bedroom often preoccupied by searching for something in drawers cupboards or under the bed It is almost impossible to attract their attention however if left alone they normally go back to bed Navigation is done mostly by memory of the layout of the room and house the eyes are unseeing and usually it is dark If the sleepwalker is asked to repeat the act the next day in wakefulness and blindfolded then he or she will soon come to grief as recall of the houshold layout is now poor but

    Original URL path: http://www.sleepclinic.co.za/sleep_disorders/sleep_disorders_childhood.htm (2015-12-05)
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  • The Sleep Medicine Group of Sleep Centres: About Us - Sleep Disorders
    is characterised by the sudden onset of an infectious type illness the subsequent chronic and debilitating fatigue and postexertional malaise many patients also have recurrent fevers pharyngitis adenopathy myalgias sleep disorders and cognitive impairment Up to 70 of patients with CFS complain of sleep disruption and unrefreshing sleep This has now been objectively demonstrated through the use of Polysomnogram sleep studies that have demonstrated decreased sleep efficiency and intrusion of

    Original URL path: http://www.sleepclinic.co.za/sleep_disorders/sleep_disorders_cfs.htm (2015-12-05)
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